The diverse structure and chemical properties of xanthones have been reported to have a variety of health promoting properties including anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidant, and anti-cancer activity.
Innearly 1. The mangosteen tree is a slow growing plant which ranges from 6 to 25 m in height and produces flowers that are red and green in color and are roughly 4—5 cm in size Obolskiy et al. Traditionally mangosteen is famous garcinia mangostana l. a phytochemical and pharmacological review its antiinflammatory properties and is used in the treatment of skin infections and wounds.
Aside from superficial cancers of the skin, prostate cancer is the second leading cause of cancer-related death in the United States Arcangeli et al. The fibers were then heat sealed at 2 cm intervals and cut in the middle of seals to generate fibers. A comprehensive assessment of the biological activities of individual xanthones as well as extracts of G.
Although many Garcinia species including G. Xanthones, with their unique physical and chemical properties, are a promising candidate in the study of dietary chemoprevention due to their health promoting properties as well as their apparent safety. Full text not available from this repository.
Anti-Cancer Activity of Mangosteen Extract Toward Breast Cancer In several studies, crude extracts from pericarp of mangosteen were evaluated for their cytotoxic activity against human breast adenocarcinoma cell line.
The Mangosteen Fruit The mangosteen Garcinia mangostana is a tropical fruit native to Southeast Asia that has long been noted for its medicinal and health promoting properties Obolskiy et al. So far, extracts and individual xanthones have been found to induce apoptosis and inhibit proliferation on cancer cells in vitro and in vivo. Xanthones have a unique chemical structure composed of a tricyclic aromatic system C6—C3—C6.
Production of the fruit generally requires 10 or more years with a yield of around fruits per tree that is increased in older trees. On day 7, mice were sacrificed and fibers were retrieved then placed into 6-well plates, where viable cell mass contained within fibers were determined with MTT assay. Details regarding the extraction and identification of these and other xanthones have been reviewed elsewhere [ 5 ].
Further work is required to understand its potential for health promotion and potential drug discovery for prostate and breast cancer chemoprevention. Introduction Juice blends and other products containing exotic fruits, also known as superfruits, have been aggressively marketed for their proposed health benefits.
In light of the interesting observations of these xanthones to modulate multiple signaling pathways it is clear that further work is required to understand its potential for health promotion and potential drug discovery. Products containing its fruits are now sold widely as liquid botanical Supplements, but evidence for the health benefits of these products is still lacking.
The lethality of prostate cancer originates from several factors including high oxidative stress of cancer cells and leading to the deregulation of multiple cellular signaling pathways including those responsible for regulating cell proliferation and the initiation of apoptosis Johnson et al. This article has been cited by other articles in PMC.
The fruit has been used for several hundred years in Southeast Asia for the treatment of wounds, inflammation, and a variety of infections Chin and Kinghorn, Conflict of Interest Statement The authors declare that the research was conducted in the absence of any commercial or financial relationships that could be construed as a potential conflict of interest.
A phytochemical and pharmacological review.
This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution license http: This fruit is an abundant source of xanthones, a class of polyphenolic compounds with a distinctive tricyclic aromatic ring system and is largely responsible for its biological activities including anti-cancer activity.
Numerous in vitro studies have shown that these xanthones possess anti-oxidant, anti-proliferative, pro-apoptotic, anti-inflammatory and anti-carcinogenic activities. Conclusion In recent years, the mangosteen has become a popular dietary supplement for its potential health promoting properties.
Abstract Garcinia mangostana L. This has given rise to a concomitant increase in research on the phytochemical constituents and biological activity of mangosteen. In general, xanthone anti-cancer activity has been shown to decrease with the addition of hydroxyl groups on the 5-carbon sidechain while the highest anti-cancer activity is seen xanthones containing tetraoxygen groups with two 5-carbon isoprenyl groups in rings A and B Obolskiy et al.
In most cases the progression of prostate and breast cancer occurs very slowly, spanning over a period of many years, with very distinct stages of initiation, promotion, and progression. Abstract Mangosteen Garcinia mangostana L. Zeitschrift fur Phytotherapie31 2 pp. Xanthones were present in the medium during days 1—10 of culture; mammary glands were scored for the incidence of lesions.
Central to the biological activity of the species are xanthones.
In one study Moongkarndi et al. Secondary metabolites, known as xanthones, have been isolated from the pericarp of mangosteen and are attributed to the medicinal properties of the fruit. The pericarp of mangosteen fruit has been used in traditional medicine in Southeast Asia for centuries to treat infection, wounds, inflammation and diarrhea [ 3 ]. Epidemiology of prostate cancer and treatment remarks.
Products containing mangosteen juice or extract are a fast growing segment of the functional beverages market. Xanthones can be classified into several groups including simple oxygenated xanthones, prenylated xanthones, xanthone glycosides, and xanthonolignoids based on these substituents.
A wide variety of pharmacological activities have been associated with the fruit and more specifically the individual xanthones therein have been shown to target multiple signaling pathways. This review will a critically address recent reports of in vivo studies on the bioavailability and metabolism of mangosteen xanthones, b update the in vitro and in vivo data on anti-cancer and anti-inflammatory activities of mangosteen xanthones, and c suggest needed areas garcinia mangostana l.
a phytochemical and pharmacological review inquiry regarding the absorption, metabolism and efficacy of mangosteen xanthones.
Xanthones are found in a select few higher plant families. This review highlights the development of this botanical drug into a widely used nutraceutical.
Generally, the incidence of prostate cancer is significantly lower in countries where people consume low-fat, plant-based diets Arcangeli et al. Several migratory studies have demonstrated a link between natural dietary agents and a lower overall incidence of prostate cancer Khan and Mukhtar, Mature mangosteen trees range from 6 to 25 m.
Isoprene, methoxyl and hydroxyl groups located at various locations on the A and B rings, resulting in a diverse array of xanthone compounds. Based on the reported findings there is clear evidence that these polyphenols target multiple signaling pathways involved in cell cycle modulation and apoptosis. Inan estimatednew cases of invasive breast cancer will be diagnosed among women in the United States, as well as garcinia mangostana l.
a phytochemical and pharmacological review estimated 57, additional cases of in situ breast cancer according to American Cancer Society. Products derived from G. As a result of its long latency, even a small delay in carcinogenesis can set back the onset of disease and improve quality of life.
This has resulted in a steady rise in sales of superfruit juices and products to consumers interested in their personal health. In a second study Moongkarndi et al. Due to the increasing incidence of cancer, there has been a growing interest in the management of the disease through dietary chemoprevention, which is the use of naturally occurring phytochemicals to slow down the process of carcinogenesis.
They have also been observed to inhibit the initiation, promotion, and progression of carcinogenesis in several animal models.
Briefly, mice were pretreated for 9 days with estradiol and progesterone, sacrificed and mammary glands dissected and subjected to culture for 10 days under appropriate conditions. Dietary Xanthones, a Source of Polyphenols from the Mangosteen Fruit Recently, the mangosteen has been noted to be an abundant source of a class of polyphenols known as xanthones. Xanthones have been shown to modulate cell signaling pathways that are deregulated in cancer cells.
As shown here, a serious weakness in our knowledge is the lack of clinical data and it is not yet clear to what extent the findings about pharmacological activities are of potential clinical relevance.
In addition, fewer lymph nodes metastases were observed in treated mice compared to controls. Fibers were cultured overnight, and one set of them is evaluated for viable cell by 3- 4, 5-dimethylthiazolyl -2, 5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide MTT assay. The chemical structure of a xanthone consists of a three ring system which contains several different functional groups including isoprene, methoxy, and phenyl groups as well as aromatic protons, phenolic hydroxyl groups, hydroxyl protons, and dihydrofuran rings Shan et al.
The mangosteen tree is mainly cultivated in Indonesia, Malaysia, the Philippines, and Thailand. In brief, Garcinia mangostana l. a phytochemical and pharmacological review cells were infused into polyvinylidene fluoride hollow fibers.
Based on these observations investigators have begun to evaluate individual xanthones for their anti-cancer potential in both breast and prostate cancer. Other appli-cations include the therapy of various conditions such as dysentery, different urinary disorders, cystitis and gonorrhoea. This has led investigators to suggest that the role of the diet is an important factor in contributing to worldwide cancer incidence.
Mangosteen is one such superfruit that is produced by Garcinia mangostana L. At least 68 distinct xanthones have been identified in different parts of the G.
The exocarp of the fruit is deep purple in color with a white pulp and typically contains 6—8 arils Chin and Kinghorn, Here we review the phytochemistry and pharma-cology of mangosteen. Following the garcinia mangostana l.
a phytochemical and pharmacological review assay, SKBR3 breast cancer cells which are known to express high levels of aromatase were evaluated to determine if these observations will occur in a cell-based system. This is especially true in that the mangosteen fruit is becoming a popular dietary supplement and juice in recent years.
The genus Garcinia is native to Asia and Africa and includes more than distinct species from which several families of bioactive compounds such as xanthones, flavonoids, triterpenoids, and benzophenones have been isolated and characterized [ 1 ].
In addition, its potential in terms of developing novel drug leads is assessed.
Oftentimes, products marketed as mangosteen juice are a blend of numerous fruit juices with mangosteen being one of the less abundant components. Annually, aboutmen worldwide are diagnosed with prostate cancer.